How the pliocene-pleistocene Panama isthmus debunks wild rafting "theories" and confirms Peter Klevius' calm out of SE Asia* human evolution analysis!

* Without DNA and our latest findings, but being a geologist, Eugene Dubois was perfectly right when he already 1891 searched in the right place and discovered "the missing link" of his time, i.e. what he named Pithecanthropus erectus, now called Homo erectus, in SE Asia. Peter Klevius thinks 'pithecus' is still more appropriate considering that Homo habilis and Homo floresiensis, like Dmanisipithecus, all lack what is considered the classic "Homo" erectus trait, i.e. full modern human like bipedalism. We were wrong about the brain, and now it's apparent we were also wrong about bipedalism. Dubois founded paleo-anthropology by not only finding the fossils, but he also analyzed them in a wholly new way by pulling human fossils out of the context of racial identification and shoved it into an evolutionary context. 
 

 Peter Klevius tutorial for Greta Thunberg and others ignorant about climate changes and human evolution

Greenland's glaciation was created as a consequence of the closing of the Caribbean ocean flow which led to ever more ice accumulation during the last four ice ages.

 
During Marine Isotope Stage 11, between 424,000 to 374,000 years ago the ice sheet hadn't reached full levels as yet and much of Greenland’s ice melted ca 8,000 years after the previous ice age which ended 416,000 years ago. We are some 20,000 years from the starting point of our interglacial.

 We live on the brink to the next inevitable ice age because we're doomed to follow the interactions between Milankovitch cycles and the insolation effects of Antarctica and Greenland! These oscillations and their effects on sea level and vegetation constitute the basis for Simian evolution and later due to even more pronounced oscillations - because of the obstruction and later closing of the Caribbean ocean flow, which created the Gulf Stream part of AMOC - the appearance of South American monkeys (which got their prehensile tail while living in the Caribbean mangrove forests - see Peter Klevius debunking of the silly "rafting theories") and of Homo.

 

According to Peter Klevius research, it was the Gulfstream that caused the Eurasian snow cover  which together with Milankovich cycles explains the onset of the last ice ages. Cooling via a thin but longer lasting snow cover can trigger the next ice age extremely quickly - global warming can not!

 It's the very existence of the Antarctic glacier after the Eocene maximum and the Greenland glacier after around 20 Ma - when the Caribbean first started to disrupt the free ocean flow between South- and North America - that functions as a "capacitor" which explains why the global cooling gets worse over time. Antarctic glaciation was a consequence of ocean circulation and Greenland because of the Gulfstream (see text below).


 


 
Primates evolved during the cooling of Earth after the Eocene maximum. Bipedal apes appeared during the extreme cooling period after ca 14 Ma, and Homos appeared after the extreme cooling around 3 Ma.

If you blindly follow CO2 - which you shouldn't - no glacial inception is projected to occur at the current atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 390 ppmv. Indeed, model experiments suggest that in the current orbital configuration—which is characterized by a weak minimum in summer insolation—glacial inception would require CO2 concentrations below preindustrial levels of 280 ppmv. However, CO2 increase in the past interglaciations was a consequence of a diminished snow cover over Northern Eurasia which led to increase in vegetation and CO2 before glaciation. Whereas glaciers need a long time to melt, snow melts immediately when temperature allows - including warm rain that can melt much colder snow. And immediately when the snow disappears, vegetation starts to grow. This is why ice core information based on glaciers has a delay which makes it appear that CO2 could be initially involved - which it wasn't because first the snow had to melt. *

* Low altitude cloud cover closely follows cosmic ray flux; that the galactic cosmic ray flux has the periodicities of the glacial/interglacial cycles; that a decrease in galactic cosmic ray flux was coincident with Termination II; and that the most likely initiator for Termination II was a consequent decrease in Earth’s albedo. The temperature of past interglacials was higher than today most likely as a consequence of a lower global albedo due to a decrease in galactic cosmic ray flux reaching the Earth’s atmosphere. In addition, the galactic cosmic ray intensity exhibits a 100 kyr periodicity over the last 200 kyr that is in phase with the glacial terminations of this period. Carbon dioxide appears to play a very limited role in setting interglacial temperature.

Whereas interglaciations are characterized by exceeding precipitation, ice ages are arid. So contrary to "global warming warnings", we should prepare for every next year possibly being the last before the steep fall into the next ice age.

Since farmers started clearing land for plants and flooded fields to grow rice while cattle breeders began to raise livestock, they also contributed to altering the climate - long before the industrial revolution - of which led to a rise in the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide and methane. Without this human influence, and the following Industrial Revolution, Earth may already been headed for the next ice age.

However, the pressure from the natural oscillations is overwhelming any human activity when considering the effect of a volcano eruption in the midst of present interglacial 12,880 bp which managed to trigger the Younger Dryas - which climate hysterics now wrongly use to call "the last ice age" and therefore equally wrongly implying we have plenty of time before the next ice age.

The science of snow cover


An anomalous “north-south” dipole mode of the snow water equivalent (SWE) persisting from winter to spring in the Eurasian mid-to-high latitudes contributes to prolonged winter-springtime coldness in midlatitude Eurasia and is closely linked to the declining November Arctic sea ice concentration over the Barents-Laptev Seas which can induce a teleconnection pattern over the mid-to-high latitudes in the following winter, accompanied by an anomalous ridge over the Ural Mountains and an anomalous trough over Europe and East Asia. Such changes in the large-scale circulation lead to more cold surges and heavy snowfall in the midlatitudes and light snowfall in the high latitudes, forming an anomalous north-south dipole mode of the SWE, which further reduces the temperature through thermodynamic feedback. Due to seasonal memory, this SWE pattern can persist into the following spring and can lead to springtime midlatitude coldness via thermodynamic and dynamic processes for which the anomalous SWE condition can lead to anomalous wet soil, reduced incoming surface solar radiation, and cooling air in the midlatitudes. This phenomenon induces an enhanced Siberian high and a deepened East Asian trough via the snow-Siberian high-feedback mechanism, which favors a cold spring in northern East Asia.

This mechanism interacts with the Milankovich cycles in a pattern that, although not fully understood, is visible in the increased amplitude of regular glacial-interglacial oscillations in the Pleistocene after the Panama isthmus closed entirely. This closing led to the strengthening of the Gulfstream or Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)—one of Earth’s major ocean circulation systems which has a major impact on the climate of especially Northern Europe.


Peter Klevius' simplified climate model based on facts we already have:

1. Earth's temperature has steadily gone down since Eocene 50 Ma due to tectonics disturbing the ocean flow between Africa and Eurasia while opening up the ocean flow around Antarctica which turned it from green to an all covering glacier.

2. The oscillations have steadily increased in amplitude with top temperature stabilizing while ice age temperatures continue to fall.

3. The mechanism behind changing Pliocene-Pleistocene oscillations is due to a combination of a) the closing of the Caribbean ocean flow which triggered the Gulfstream more strongly to the North, and b) snow cover or lack thereof over Northern Eurasian lowland, and c) Milankovitch cycles.  

4. The latest pattern started around 3 Ma which is exactly when the Homo lineage appeared - see:
https://peterklevius.blogspot.com/2023/01/how-pliocene-pleistocene-panama-isthmus.html

 

 Peter Klevius aid to release afropologists from their "out-of-Africa" delusion:



1. An easily mowing bipedal ape with a big brain who eats almost everything can not possibly evolve on a continent like Africa - only possibly hybridize.
2. Africa lacks unambiguous transitional fossil between ape and Homo.
3. DNA doesn't prove that ancestors 100,000 years ago lived in Africa.
4. SE Asia has everything Africa lacks (incl. Homo floresiensis and Denisovan DNA).

And to Greta Thunberg: We're already overdue to the next iceage! Every ice core indicates this very clearly. So please, warn the world against a coming freeze that could arrive much quicker than any warming.


Out of Eurasia as bipedal apes and out of Siberia as global "Mongoloids ...


The easily disproved "out-of-Africa theory" is shockingly bad "science" riddled with errors of fact, attribution - and rafting. An appalling example of science replaced* by PC.

* Peter Klevius is a virgin scientist because he doesn't have to contaminate himself with peer pressure. And his extreme sensitivity for logical criticism saves him from self-delusion. So in his writings there's no bias - only occasional stupidities. Whereas bias is deliberate, stupidity is spontaneous. There was a time when stupid people like Peter Klevius were overwhelmed by fossils from Africa, but also lacking info about ancient DNA and the existence of Homo floresiensis. To his defense Peter Klevius may say that he was at the least puzzled (in Demand for Resources 1992) by the existence of the 280,000 BP mongoloid faced Jinniushan in Northern China and the equally mongoloid faced modern Khoisan people who were said to be the true natives of Africa.  

Chimps have absolutely nothing to do with the evolution of the Homo lineage, other than that it's also an ape - although perhaps not that "great" as it's described by afropologists.

 

                                                         Ape

                                                  Homo floresiensis

 Debbie Argue et al (2017) suggest Homo floresiensis is a long-surviving relict of an early (>1.75 Ma) hominin lineage and a hitherto unknown migration out of Africa, and not a recent derivative of either H. erectus or H. sapiens.

Peter Klevius likewise suggests H. floresiensis is a long-surviving relict of an early (>1.75 Ma) hominin lineage and a hitherto unknown native of SE Asia, and not a recent derivative of either H. erectus or H. sapiens - because trying to squeeze H. floresiensis bipedal apelike post-head features into H. erectus would challenge the very definition of the latter. However, how would a predecessor to H.erectus have reached Flores if we rely on existing data about the wide and strong Wallace line current which would have brought them (dead) to Africa rather than to Flores? Moreover, out-of-Africa ranters seem to have no problem keeping modern humans locked inside Africa (or even worse - failing to survive outside Africa) for hundreds of thousands of years without entering the huge landbridge to Eurasia that has always existed east of the Nile. But the primitive H. floresiensis, which - except for its humanlike head and molar morphology that is more progressive even compared to modern humans - represents something from Lucy's time that has never been seen in Africa but is exactly what one would expect from a derived ape.

So based on available free info Peter Klevius proposes that H. floresiensis evolved exactly as afropologists say about bipedal australopithecines, i.e. stepping out from the jungle to the savannah, or at least a more open landscape, and in the case of Flores, also an open shoreline. However, nothing forced the australopithecines in Africa back into the jungle as was the case on Flores during every interglacial. This was the reason why H. floresiensis got a much better packed and formed brain, because only those survived who could shrink without losing intelligence (compare the microchip race of today). And we do know that the cold periods with lower sea level lasted much longer than the interglacials which made evolution of bipedalism possible even on Flores and similar islands. So Flores may well have been isolated all the time but the very existence of H.floresiensis there for at least 800,000 years may function as a model for similar evolution on islands which were not always isolated but still long enough to create H. floresiensis like archaic Homos which then could enter mainland and hybridize with relatives who also may have re-entered the former island.


H. habilis seems to be most like H. floresiensis in several traits. The youngest H. habilis , OH 13, dates to about 1.65 mya, and we do know that H. floresiensis was on Flores at least 0.8 mya - and with even smaller bones than the more recent ones at Liang Bua, which strongly contradicts suggestions about H. erectus somehow reaching Flores and shrinking. As H. floresiensis ecolved in SE Asia it means that its predecessors must be at least equally old as the oldest H. habilis in Africa, because the latter must have come to Africa from SE Asia during times when interglacials were warmer than today, hence .

The oldest fossil (parts of a jaw) attributed to Homo is 2.8 mya, and based on the first major iceage dip in temperature Peter Klevius hypothesizes that the Homo lineage started around 3.3 mya.

The naledipithecus is the "star" of the latest African show, while the real star in SE Asia is called "just a hobbit"!


Do realize that the real comic here is that the fossil ape skull of Naledipithecus was "reconstructed" to look as human like as possible. However, Peter Klevius can assure you that the modern Homo sapiens skull to the left has absolutely no resemblance in the real world with the masked ape skull to the right.

 And this is how the "reconstruction" is made when the skull (Homo longinensis aka "Red Deer Cave  people")  is from China.

Peter Klevius wrote 2012 about the Red Deer Cave people found in China:


First and third from the left are Red Deer Cave people 14,300-11,500 years ago. Second and fourth the so called Venus from Brassempouy in France 25-26,000 years ago. The last pic is a reconstruction of a 1.9 Million year old Homo rudolfiensis skull. They all had flat broad cheeks, no chin and rounded forehead.

From the left: Red Deer Cave, Sami, Cro-Magnon


Was the sculptural portrait of Venus of Brassempouy made because she looked so different from Cro Magnon? Was she kept as a pet or something by her Cro Magnon captors?

There were certainly completely different looking modern humans living in Eurasia side by side some 26,000 years ago. And the only way to make sense of these enormous differences is Klevius hybridization theory, i.e. that the modern brain came from small ape-like creatures (compare the "scientists" who didn't believe that the small Homo floresiensis brain could be capable of tool-making, fire-making etc..

Debbie Martyr (an Orang Pendek* researcher): "the mouth is small and neat, the eyes are set wide apart and the nose is distinctly humanoid"

* Orange Pendek is the most common name given to a small but broad shouldered cryptid ceature that reportedly inhabits remote, mountainous forests on Sumatra.


Venus of Brassempouy, one of the world's oldest real portrait
(this one slightly retouched by Klevius):

The Red Deer Cave people, discovered in southern China and who lived some 14,300-11,500 years ago  had long, broad and tall frontal lobes behind the forehead, which are associated with personality and behavior.  However, they also express prominent brow ridges, thick skull bones, flat upper face with a broad nose, jutting jaws and lack a humanlike chin. Their brains were smaller than modern humans and they had large molar teeth (just like Denisovan), and short parietal lobes at the top of the head (associated with sensory data). According to Curnoe, "These are primitive features seen in our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago".


Unique features of the Red Deer Cave people include a strongly curved forehead bone, broad nose and broad eye sockets, flat and wide cheeks and wide and deep lower jaw joint to the skull base.

Klevius comment: Compare this description to Venus of Brassempouy on the pic, one of the world’s oldest portrait/sculpture of a human made some 25-26,000 years ago in what is now France.

This Cro Magnon could have been the captor of Venus of Brassempouy. Compare e.g. his protruding chin with the retracting one on Venus of Brassempouy. And keep in mind that the human chin has been an elusive and quite recent feature in human evolution. The delicate features we used to attribute to anatomically modern human while simultaneously attributing high intelligence may, in fact, not be connected at all. Slender and delicate skeletal features are not always connected with high cultural achievement. Quite the opposite when looking at skeletal remains outside the Aurignacian area..

 The enormous fuzz about naledipithecus in South Africa ought to be compared to the deafening silenec about the s.c. Red Deer Cave people and Longlin people in China, which really shows the scientific PC bias sickness at full glory. Naledipithecus is an evolutionary dead end as everything else in the African fossil dump, whereas the Red Deer Cave/Longlin Homos may favorably be seen as evolved from H. floresiensis like Homos. We do know that they belong to the base of mtDNA M9, i.e. same hg as Tibetan Sherpas as well as SE Asian indigenous people. We also know that they share extremely primitive traits expected in H. habilis - and  e.g. H. floresiensis. Also consider that the Denisovan genes in the Sherpas have a setup for high altitude living.

H. floresiensis' nearly complete right humerus (LB1/50) appears fairly modern in most regards. However, it's remarkable in displaying only 110 degrees of humeral torsion, well below modern human average. Assuming a modern human shoulder configuration, such a low degree of humeral torsion would result in a lateral set to the elbow. Such an elbow joint would function more nearly in a frontal than in a sagittal plane, which isn't what one would expect for tool-making. However, H. floresiensis probably did not have a modern human shoulder configuration: the clavicle was relatively short, and it has been suggested that the scapula was more protracted, resulting in a glenoid fossa that faced anteriorly rather than laterally. A posteriorly directed humeral head was therefore appropriate for maintaining a normally functioning elbow joint. Similar morphology in the Homo erectus Nariokotome boy (KNM-WT 15000) suggests that this shoulder configuration may represent a transitional stage in pectoral girdle evolution in the human lineage.

Instead of being "puzzling" when not assessed through obscuring "out-of-Africa" glasses, H. floresiensis is the very fossil one would expect in the out-of-SE Asia scenario. It perfectly fills the gaps seen in the "out-of-Africa" mythology. In fact, not a single one of the fossil species found in Africa evolved there. All primates came out of SE Asia - as did all other mammals which didn't originate in Gondwana. Moreover, "afropology" has put a heavy and distorting toll on much classification, resulting in an extreme overall Africa bias that distorts almost everything in primatology as well as re. other mammals. So for example, although most people today admit that as classical portrayed s.c. "African animals" like deers, giraffes, lions, etc. came out of SE Asia, there is also no good reason to believe that elephants evolved in Africa, but a lot of indications for the contrary. And the reason for this was climate changes in the past causing intermittent landbridges between islands and mainland in tropical SE Asia. This Africa bias should be critically scrutinized whenever afropologists stick to their beloved "rafting delusions".


Peter Klevius can't stop wondering over serious looking "scientists" going from a heated debate over where in Africa human evolution originated, to a consensus meltdown view that "it happened all over Africa" - but not outside Africa. 

And according to Wikipedia (2022) modern humans reached Australia 65,000 BP - and Eurasia 5,000 years later!

Every "out-of-Africa" argument is hollow to the very bone:

1. So many fossils in Africa - which has its unique Rift Valley smorgasbord where most of the oldest fossils are found. Quantity doesn't prove quality. However, although there are (not yet) equally old Homo erectus fossils in e.g. China, there are equally old 2.1 Myr stone tools possibly made by them. A fossil rarely proves that it evolved there - a possible exception being Homo floresiensis. And as humans couldn't have evolved in China - although China is much more diverse than the whole of Africa - then the fossils in its neighbourhood ought to be even older. Moreover, the least likely place (except for a few caves) to find fossil and culture is the SE Asian "cradle of human evolution" because high sea level now covers former savannah belts etc. and much of the rest is similar to African jungle area which also lacks fossil.

2. The "oldest DNA" argument was based on DNA taken from modern "mongoloid" cold adapted Khoisan people whose ancestors came to Africa relatively late - i.e. long after the "mitochondrial Eve". And even the original pygmies were probably there already before the Khoisan people (but also long after "Eve") although they also had old Homo DNA as showed by ancient DNA from Holocene fossils.

3. Culture, like fossils, is dependent on material findings and  often difficult to assess. However, the extreme spike in sophistication radiating from Siberia to Iberia in the West and Sulawesi in the East 40-50,000 BP clearly indicates what Svante Pääbo and Peter Klevius (the latter long before Pääbo) have seen as the sign of a better packed brain setup.



Speciation, hybridization and phenotype

It's important to take into account the difference between

1. speciation, which needs isolation
2. hybridization, which is the opposite
3. phenotyping, which needs both isolation and staying within a certain environmental influence to develope - without becoming a new species.

The end result in the fossil record could be either a new species or a hybrid. They, in turn, could have various differences in phenotype.


Homos are bipedals but apes "invented" bipedalism long before Homos "copied" it

Homo bipedalism arose in an island environment. A model, based on observations of extended-leg bipedalism in wild orang-utans and supported by the fossil record, suggests that habitual terrestrial bipedalism derived from arboreal hand-assisted bipedalism in a habitually orthograde hominoid. This is also supported by a mutation(s) in homeobox genes governing lumbar vertebra morphology and facilitating habitual orthogrady, which may have been present in our hominoid ancestors.

Danuvius guggenmosi is the first recorded Miocene great ape to have had the diaphragm located in the lower chest cavity, as in Homo, indicating an extended lower back and a greater number of functional lumbar vertebrae. This may have caused lordosis (the normal curvature of the human spine) and moved the center of mass over the hips and legs, which implies some habitual bipedal activity. The robust finger and hypertrophied wrist and elbow bones indicate a strong grip and load bearing adaptations for the arms. The legs also show adaptations for load-bearing, especially at the hypertrophied knee joint. There was likely limited ankle loading, and the ankle would have had a hinge-like function, being most stable if positioned perpendicularly to the leg as opposed to at an angle as in apes. Danuvius was likely able to achieve a strong grip with its big toes, unlike modern African apes, which would have allowed it to grasp onto thinner trees. Adaptations for load bearing in both the arm and leg joints to this degree is unknown in any other primate. Plantigrade catarrhine monkeys lack the capacity for suspensory locomotion or to focus body weight over the knee joint; African knuckle-walking apes lack strong big toes and thumbs, and have more robust finger bones; and both lack an extendable knee. Orangutans have a clambering motion too, but their knees lack weight-bearing ability. The total anatomy of the limbs suggest Danuvius was capable of a seemingly unique manner of locomotion called "extended limb clambering". Danuvius likely walked along mildly inclined tree branches with its foot directly laid onto the branch, using its strong big toes for grasping. The strong knee joint would have provided balance while walking by counteracting torques, and the strong hands would have carried out a similar function during suspension or palm-walking. Extended limb clambering emphasizes knee extension and lordosis, as well as the suspensory mechanisms seen in apes, and may be a precursor to obligate bipedalism seen in human ancestors. The Hammerschmiede site is located in the Upper Freshwater Molasse of the Molasse basin; by the late Miocene, the Paratethys Sea had dried up and the Alps had lifted, allowing the expansion of wetland habitats in the basin. The late Miocene may have been the beginning of a drying trend characterized by increased seasonality, causing deciduous forest to turn into a less dense woodland, and fruit and leaf production to occur cyclically rather than year-round. The late Miocene cooling trend may have led to the replacement of more tropical flora by mid-latitude and alpine varieties, and ultimately the extinction.
 

Primate evolution is a consequence of climate changes


∼60–50 Mya the sea level was ∼150 m above present while dropping sharply during middle Eocene glaciations while extending coastlines and creating land bridges.

Analyses by Fengyuan LI and Shuqiang Li (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 2018) suggest that Plio–Pleistocene sea-level rises contributed to recent divergence of many species. Their findings cannot reject the hypothesis that sea-level changes during the Paleocene–Eocene and Plio–Pleistocene played a major role in generating biodiversity in SE Asia; sea-level changes can act as “species pumps”. This is how Peter Klevius described it back in 2004 when he still believed in continental evolution, and instead of islands used the Central-Asian passes as the "arteries" through which genes were "pumped" between the south and the fat- and protein rich north due to climate changes.

Plio–Pleistocene experienced more than 58 rapid rises exceeding 40 m hence causing multiple isolations with far-reaching consequences for allopatric speciation in megadiverse SE Asia, one of the most geologically dynamic regions on earth. Fluctuating sea levels also periodically converted mountains into islands. Cycles of Plio–Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations isolated and connected landmass and in doing so drove allopatric speciation. Thus, sea-level changes have been identified as the key factor driving the megadiversity of SE Asia. Fragmentation of land hence is the key to diversity in speciation.

Fancy rafting "theories" by afropologists are scientifically empty but populist. 


According to Peter Klevius (1992-2012), human evolution was triggered by pliocene-pleistocene climate changes (iceages/interglacials) which were increasingly more dynamic and the overall tendency cooler. Also according to Peter Klevius, the closing of the Panama isthmus was the final obstruction in the oceanic current system that started cooling the planet already in the eocene due to the breakup of Gondwana, and due to the closing of the Tethys ocean and the resulting circumpolar current that caused the freezing of Antarctica. The stepwise closing of the Panama isthmus (completely closed some 3 mya) shaped not only the Gulf stream but also how the currents in eastern Pacific changed, which is probably also behind the el Nino phenomenon. However, because of the volatile geology/tectonics/volcanism the Panama isthmus has experience due to the collision between the Sout American and North American plates, we lack of full understanding about it still, yet already do know that the closing was a much more extended process than previously thought. Against this background it's not far fetched to calculate with changing and moving of mangrove forests over thousands of years which would have facilitated large mangrove "islands" which later connected to other such "islands" hence giving plenty of opportunities for survival and relocation för animals specialized on feeding of mangrove or whatever was at hands there. Living on and moving through the Panama isthmus mangrove forests could also explain why the prehensile tail is a predominantly South American adaptation, and how monkeys and rodents from North America managed to cross long before more terrestrial mammals.

 Why would early monkeys raft over the Atlantic ocean when they could climb the Caribbean mangroves forestover to South America from North America where we know Rooneyia existed?!And why would recent fully modern Homos stay inside Africa when early Homos were in China more than 2 Mya?!

Monkeys and rodents were the first to access South America - by utalizing ever changing mangrove forests in the geologically volatile structure of Caribbean and the Panama isthmus.

Not a lesser knuckle-walking chimp ancestor but rather a great gibbon-like one fits the bill for the evolution of human bipedalism. 

Sadly, we have no gibbon-like apes in Africa - only clumsy knuckle-walkers. Also do note that we're extremely short in supply of timely ape fossils.

There's something peculiar with naming gibbons as belonging to the "lesser apes" while chimps are said to belong to the "great apes". And although gibbon apes are smaller than chimp and gorilla apes, there anyway seems to be a certain biased hierarchy hiding behind "great" and "lesser". You don't call an African elephant a "lesser mammouth" do you!

* Although truly bipedal apes may have existed more than 13 mya, it was only with the onset of the cooler and fluctuating iceages in late Pliocene that triggered the Homo lineage to develop a better brain combined with bipedality.

Bipedality is a hallmark of the gibbon-human lineage as gibbons also walk and run perfectly bipedally, unlike the clumsy knuckle-walking chimp - but is thoroughly overlooked by afropologists because there are no extant gibbons in Africa.

Suspensory activity and human bipedalism both originated from a form capable of both.

Gibbons are the most bipedal of all non-human primates.

The foot function of gibbons during terrestrial bipedal locomotion, with high mobility of the foot as well as the regular display of both arboreal and terrestrial bipedalism, makes the gibbon a model for an ancestral tree-living hominoid/protohominin.

Extended limb clambering


Fossil of the right pes of Oreopithecus, Homo floresiensis and Homo sapiens reveals the transition of a flexible, arboreal gibbon-like foot to an inflexible terrestrial human foot with Homo floresiensis as a transitional taxon.

Although a compliant foot is less mechanically effective for push-off than a `rigid' arched foot, it can contribute to the generation of propulsion in bipedal locomotion via stretch and recoil of the plantarflexor tendons and plantar ligaments.

With bipedalism accounting for 10–12% of their locomotor activities gibbons alternate brachiation with fast bipedal bouts on large boughs and branches (diameter >10 cm), and bipedalism is their preferred terrestrial gait when crossing gaps in the forest canopy. This means that, despite the high incidence of brachiation, the hind limbs are important for propulsion generation in gibbons. Like most arboreal primates,gibbons have a mobile, prehensile foot structure with a divergent, opposable hallux. The gibbon foot is essentially flat (i.e. lacks a longitudinal arch as seen in modern humans) and displays a midtarsal break during bipedalism. The plantar aponeurosis is relatively weakly developed compared with the human plantar aponeurosis; however, other plantar connective tissues lying deep to the plantar aponeurosis, such as the plantar ligaments and the tendons of the digital flexors, are prominent. Both the long digital flexors and gastrocnemius are short-fibred, pennate muscles, favouring economical force production and elastic energy usage. Unlike other nonhuman apes, the external portion of the gibbon Achilles' tendon (i.e. triceps surae tendon) is particularly long,comparable in size to the human Achilles' tendon. The high tarsal mobility and absence of a longitudinal foot arch means that the gibbon foot cannot act as rigid lever for push-off; however, the muscle architecture of the lower limb seems to facilitate that the gibbon foot will contribute to the generation of propulsion via elastic recoil of plantarflexor tendons and plantar ligaments.

The gibbon wrist was already prepared for bipedalism

One unique aspect of a gibbon's anatomy is the wrist, which functions something like a ball-and-socket joint, allowing for biaxial movement. This greatly reduces the amount of energy needed in the upper arm and torso, while also reducing stress on the shoulder joint.

As gibbon-like hominids switched from the above methods of locomotion to walking on two feet, wrists would adapt to additional tasks. Walking on two feet freed the hands for other uses. Ancestors became able to use their hands for throwing and clubbing. The wrists must move in specific ways to enable these activities. For example, when comparing human capabilities to chimpanzee capabilities, chimpanzees do not have the same capacity for extension of the wrists. This could suggest that changes in the wrist occurred to give humans these capabilities. Major changes also occurred in hominid hand structure, which made it possible for ancestors to begin gripping, grasping, and releasing tools with precision. These changes have had a significant impact on behavior and the success of the species.

 

 Say hello to your mitochondrial Eve - the Colugo from SE Asia!

 


 


 


 


 

Additional pics related to the post. 


Peter Klevius wrote:

For free, Peter Klevius* here presents his, outside the constrain of the academic box, analysis about human evolution


* The only thing you have to suffer is Peter Klevius repeated naming of Peter Klevius. However, this extremely strange behavior from someone calling himself "the extremely normal" (except for his high IQ disability) you may rather accuse "the scientific community" for. Ask yourself, if Peter Klevius published analyses (since 1981) about evolution, brain/consciousness, sex segregatio/heterosexual attraction, the modern social hermit "Homo filius nullius", anthropology, sociology, etc., are at least on an average level, then why is his name almost never mentioned in the "scientific community"?!

According to Peter Klevius, "Out of Africa" and "Flat Earth" "theories" are identical twins - except that the former is politically correct, gets more money, and isn't a gimmick.


Under the anti-science slogan "science is activism" the "pan-African" "out-of-Africa" delusion has become the ultimate scientific meltdown represented by afropologist* Chris Stringer** and others


* 'Afropologist'/'afropology' in Peter Klevius writings of course has nothing to do with s.c. afro hair style (just check the pic of Chris Stringer). It's also worth mentioning that Peter Klevius was quite hopeful when Chris Stringer some years ago announced some sort of hesitation re. "out of Africa". However, now when the evidence is mounting against "out of Africa" he seems to retard back. Why?!

** Peter Klevius of course excuses Chris Stringer and other afropologists if their charlatanism is due to low IQ. But then the question arises: Why are they given so much space in what is supposed to be a scientific community?! And of course most of us know the answer, i.e. because it's considered PC and all scientists have to first eradicate "racism" before making "science" - which of course eliminates the very core of science. However, this is also why Peter Klevius is the only one capable of doing (mostly) unbiased science in evolutionary anthropology. And although being an Atheist is a necessity for unbiased science, it's seen by PC people as a grave flaw and morally despicable. He would never have been allowed into the "afropologist community" camp no matter what IQ, recommendations, credentials, books, papers, theses, original groundbreaking research etc.. And the other side of the coin is of course that when Peter Klevius realized it, he also saw it as his responsibility to defend science, precisely because of what his brain, knowledge and bias free situation offered. There can't be many anomalies like Peter Klevius on the planet, right. However, although the Earth isn't flat it's certainly PC and contains a lot of madness. Moreover, Peter Klevius is certainly an extremly boring guy in the eyes of mentalists, religionists, supranaturalists, psychologists etc., because no one has ever seen him unstable or strange in any sense - incl. himself. Peter Klevius to the world: 'Houston! We'we got a problem if Peter Klevius isn't "normal".'


 Peter Klevius science blog: 2019

Peter Klevius thinks Chris Stringer should have abandoned the hilarious "out of Africa" charlatanism long ago. Most of us consider creationists funny guys. However, Peter Klevius doesn't really see any difference compared to afropologism. Moreover, Chris Stringers idea about Nenanderthals having a "too big" visual cortex, which redued their capacity for social interaction. This reasoning rests on a fallacy that could have easily been corrected if Chris Stringer had read Peter Klevius theory (EMAH) on how the brain works, i.e. that there's no qualitative difference between visual or other forms of thinking. In other words, "visual thinking" can be equally "social" as any other.

What really triggered this lengthy post was when Alex Timmermann and his team recently scandalously reported that they for half a year had kept an expensive supercomputer busy by calculating 2 million years of human evolution with the variables climate change and Homo speciation (as they thought seen in fossils). However, with this approach they actually tried to open an already open door called out of SE Asia. The simulation gave data linking climate change to human evolution and speciation - and that's exactly what Peter Klevius (for free) has said for more than a decade. However, precisely because of the PC but hoax "out-of-Africa" and populist 'climate change' (and not having read Peter Klevius) they interpreted the result exactly opposite to what it showed.  

Acknowledgement to the magazine called Nature which erroneously and uncritically publishes almost whatever rant as long it's "out-of-Africa. Only if Nature arranges for the proper editing and proofreading to make the presentation "appear more serious" may Peter Klevius consider allowing Nature to publish it. However, the chance for this to happen is almost nil - but do let me know if you're interested in real science! Yes, admittedly Peter Klevius is equally negligible as Thomas Kuhn's anomalies - to a point of no return when a period of cover up starts, still trying to avoid Peter Klevius. If Peter Klevius out of SE Asia theory is even close to reality - hence making "out-of-Africa" impossible - then Nature has to completely rethink its position, because it has had at least the same information available as has Peter Klevius - meaning its editorial policy should have been much more critical against many afropology papers it has published.   

"Out of Africa" rests on a set of in-commensurable premises. 

 Its genetic "evidence" for the past is based on contemporary DNA and locked into the same closed room as the ridiculous idea of borders within a borderless Africa, which rarely are open - but when opened, then in no time over real borders brings early Homos over the Wallace line to Sahul while only making it to Europe tens of thousands years later! And when much older Homo sapiens show up in Eurasia, then it's explained away by afropologists as: 'They didn't make it!'

Having not the slightest clue about human movements between Eurasia and Africa, but a lot of confused guesswork and admitting there was a lot of such traffic, while stubbornly claiming that humans evolved* in Africa and only rarely managed to step out over the vast and most of the time easily accessible Sinai bridge to Eurasia, is just pathetic. It's almost like an unconscious stand-up comedy show when afropologists with a serious face tell people that humans reached Australia some 10,000 years before the rest of the world outside Africa. And their explanation is in fact 100% in line with Peter Klevius, i.e. that they followed routes where their fossils now are under water - except of course that Peter Klevius boring scientific explanation reverses the direction, and therefore lacks the afropologists' punch line needed for real comedy.

* When eventually "out of Africa" believers have to accept Peter Klevius theory they will probably (and there are signs they already do) try to stretch the concept of evolution to include minor effects of hybridization and biogeography and local climate changes. But the reality seems to be just the opposite, namely that perhaps all primates and most mammals post paleocene may be evolutionarily traced to SE Asia. The shaky concept of Afrotheria is just one example. No matter if we are talking tarsiers, lemurs, New World Monkeys, or even elephants, there's no firm ground under the feet of afropologists. And the desperately comical idea of "monkeys twice rafting over the Atlantic ocean to South America" is thoroughly dismissed not only by logic* but also by a tiny fossil called Rooneyia. Also consider the hasty and populist but completely unsupported naming of Afrotarsius.

* Uncertainty about the climatological and tectonic effects on monkey migration from north to south America ought first to be considered before laughable but PC afro-guesswork.

The extreme pro-out-of-Africa bias that is easily spotted all over the web, should already in itself be a warning sign for anyone openminded. Similar bone engravings as the even older Eurasian ones, when found in Africa are immediately piled to the "Africa first in the world" heap and even declared mathematical inventions, while no one has even thought about doing such a stupid assessment about the Eurasian ones. And because of this bias researchers and institutions happily create fanciful but easily sold charlatan "science" from it. And a 73,000 bp "hashtag" in Southern Africa is highly celebrated by afropologists and thrown at ignorant viewers, while a similar but 500,000 bp "hashtag" from SE Asia is somehow completely forgotten.

De-puzzling Homo evolution by releasing it from its political inprisonment on the African continent.

Peter Klevius answers the most stupid question in anthropology: Why are we now alone?

Because population growth and boating skills etc. destroyed any lingering hiding place for close relatives. When Homo sapiens, which evolved in SE Asia, mixed with Neanderthals we got a hybrid that wiped out the original Neanderthal but saved Homo sapiens with some minor issues and favours - and it happened really fast. Let all the chimp "species" freely mix with each other and they will in no time also "be alone". Like humans, all dogs belong to the same species and with similar Homogeneity. And like with humans there used to be more heterogenity before. The very fact we are alone disproves in itself the widespread out of Africa charlatanism. No bipedal omnivorous Homo species has ever been able to hide every female many hundreds of thousands of years on a continent. Only a certain type of islands can do the trick of repeated evolutionary changes which are then pushed out and re-enter in accordance with sea level (climate) changes. And the fact that Homos before the upper paleolithic expansion, unlike e.g. rats, had a low population density, made inbreeding and hybridization cause extinction. Low in numbers and low in diversity, small groups interacted with each other on a small and vanishing scale before a new brain setup, compare the staggering IQ of Homo floresiensis compared to e.g. "Lucy" with similar brain size, changed everything. Lucy was just one of many African immigrant apes that originally came from SE Asia with minor phenotype alterations during the trip and changing environment. And the growth and sophistication of the Homo brain followed the old primate formula which is best explained by Peter Klevius theory about repeated island-mainland fluctuations.

And although, the much talked about human chin is really nothing but the remnant of hybridization and a retracting jaw (compare e.g. the human vestigial tail bone), afropologists like Chris Stringer use it as a morphological trait for defining humans. However, Europeans (e.g. the s.c. Cro-Magnon people) have the most prominent chin because they had interbred with Neanderthals equipped with a prominent protruding jaw. And with an IQ far above Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon's predecessors had developed eating habits that didn't need Neanderthal chewing gear. And of course, Cro-Magnon people genetically came from East Asia and therefore had a genetic preference for a skull more like e.g. the Liujiang man from eastern China where the archaic Homos were already "mongolized", i.e. having much less protruding lower face - not to mention the big Jinniushan woman from northern China that Peter Klevius used 1992 as connecting to the mongoloid Khoisan people in southern Africa of today.

Afropologists deny the existence of a better brain among Homo sapiens and therefore try, in vain, to intellectually "humanize" Neanderthals by wrongly pointing to cultural remains as created by Neanderthals when they are in fact produced by Homo sapiens and Neanderthal "hybrids". Afropologist Hublin is notorious in this respect.

Similarly, but more cautiously, as mentioned above, some years ago Chris Stringer came up with the ridiculous idea that the Neanderthals didn't manage to compete with the human brain because the big eyes of Neanderthals demanded such a big visual cortex that it left it with less room for "social IQ". As you dear reader, are well aware, Peter Klevius is a real expert on cognition and how the brain works (see e.g. EMAH). The "visual cortex" in born blinds is fully employed. The misleading name is inherited from the 19th century's classification of brain parts to perceived psychological etc. categories, i.e. the fanciful thought that nature reasons like humans. There's simply nothing stopping "social interaction" because of where in the cortex the processes occure. An image is an image no matter how it's produced.

 

 

Wednesday, September 09, 2020

Peter Klevius manual for building a human with AGI*

 * Self-driving robots based on Peter Klevius theory below would not have to program their basic setup through living because they would utilize the totality of information on the web. And immediately after being connected they would start to individualize based on the additional experience each one gets from its particular moving origo.

The Verbal Fallacy of Language 

Warning: Your research may be repossessed!


You commit scientific (and moral) fraud if you learn from Peter Klevius without referring/citing him as you normally do with other sources.

Peter Klevius is very serious when asking you to consider your level of bigotry and hypocrisy.

It's not very scientific, is it, to dismiss Peter Klevius as an "islamophobe" (i.e. Human Rights defender) and "a random blogger", especially when he most likely has a better brain and less bias* than you.

* Are you totally independent when it comes to economy, career etc., and do you lack religious, political etc. dogmas?

Peter Klevius 1994 EMAH* theory on consciousness and how the brain works.

* EMAH stands for the Even More Astonishing Hypothesis which alludes to Francis Crick's book The Astonishing Hypothesis. A copy of the first draft was immediately sent to Crick as a letter + a floppy disc with the same content in ASCI.

 An other similarly stupid question: Did climate change affect the evolution of humans?

Of course, how else would they have come out from the SE Asian island archepilago?! You don't need a super-computer to understand this, right. Because of the PC "out-of-Africa" entrapment, "research" using it as a platform, becomes ever more comical - especially when you combine the pop-words 'out of Africa' and 'climate change' for getting research grants to waste for absolute nosense.

A third similarly stupid question is whether we still evolve - which is a conflation between evolutionary speciation and hybridization.

Our species originally evolved in island isolations and has today stopped evolving due to a global "island" isolation. Only sending women into space for mmany hundreds of thousands of years could produce new evolutionary steps. Or we could do it genetically in a laboratory in no time at all. However, these options are outside the scope of paleoanthropology.

We don't even have to bother about species but rather on distinct evolutionary steps that only happens in longtime isolation. The history of (hetero)sexual* life on Earth is in essence the history of cracking continents** - of which SE Asian archepilago is the latest main remnant.

* Although most people understand that for natural reproduction a man's sperm has to be delivered into a woman, only Peter Klevius seems to understand that for this to happen there must be some sort of non cultural/non-romantic heterosexual attraction at work, which distinctively constitutes a basic natural difference between the sexes. This simple fact has been heavily distorted due to cultural/religious taboos

** Do realize that cracking continents also include the creation of lakes etc. evolutionary "sea islands" of which some turned into freshwater "islands". Adapting to these slow changes created much of the diversity we see in the fossil records long before tectonics had settled to the modern form, including the whole of pleistocene. Although the Panama isthmus closed (perhaps partially starting already in Miocene/Pliocene) and the Mediterranean emptied and filled during the same time, most of evolutionary interest happened in SE Asia due to sea level fluctuations - and perhaps some until now unknown tectonics etc.

Hybridization is all the time ongoing but can't create main evolutionary steps. So no, we won't evolve anymore unless someone manages to isolate a quite considerable anount of women for up to a million years or so. Scientists who obviously haven't read Peter Klevius,have been puzzled by the fact that they see two opposite trends in evolution, i.e. one that is extremely long term, and an other where evolution seemingly happens in no time. Applied to hominid evolution (and most other terrestials) this makes complete sense with Peter Klevius' SE Asian volatile island/mainland theory.

Out-of-Africa rests on these pillars of sand:

1 Modern DNA which doesn't prove anything about its origin. We don't have ancient enough DNA from Africa, so it's pure and totally uncritical guesswork to assume that older parts of modern Khoisan genome arose in Africa. Their phenotype and fossil records tell exactly the opposite story.

2 A tiny pile of ambiguous fossils - just contrary to the ear deafening mantra about the "abundance of fossil evidence in Africa". We simply lack crucial transitional fossils showing the emergence of Homo or Homo sapiens in Africa. And we will never find them there! However, we found them in SE Asia - but afropologists seem not interested or try to hide them behing childish "rafting theories".

Out of Southeast Asia rests on these pillars of unbiased logic on the bedrock of hard data:

1 Ancient DNA and fossils (Denisovan), all the way between SE Asia and Siberia, point towards SE Asia - not Africa.

2 All transitional (not to be conflated with hybrids) Homo fossils ever found are in SE Asia (e.g. Homo floresiensis and Homo luzonensis) and southern China (Longlin Cave and the s.c. Red Deer Cave people at Maludong), which are dated to 17,830-11,500 BP. Like Homo floresiensis, the fossils exhibit a mix of archaic and modern features and represent a late survival of an archaic human species. Evidence shows large deer were cooked. Darren Curnoe:'The new find hints at the possibility a pre-modern species may have overlapped in time with modern humans on mainland East Asia. Why did they survive so late? And why only in tropical southern China?

Peter Klevius: The timing of the fossils may hint at them representing the last delivery from the SE Asian cradle of evolution via the landbridge that the last glacial maximum created. And the most recent fossil is close to the turbulent climate change around Younger Dryas.

The Maludong femur might represent a relic, tropically adapted, archaic population that survived relatively late in this biogeographically complex, highly diverse and largely isolated region.' Darren Curnoe admitted his work is 'controversial' and said some of his colleagues are 'simply unable to accept the possibility that archaic looking bones could be so young'. However, when Homo floresiensis was found, the same kind of comments were made because this species looks a lot like Australopithecus skeletons, like Lucy, that lived in Africa 3-4 million years ago.

Peter Klevius: However, Lucy had an ape skull and an ape brain whereas the features of the skull of Homo floresiensis literally forced the scientific community of afropologists, after long infighting - to accept it as a Homo.

Darren Curnoe: There were similar remains at Denisova Cave, although the bones are 30,000 to 40,000 years older than at Maludong. They've recovered evidence for multiple archaic species like the Neanderthals and Denisovans in the same cave layers as modern human dating to about 50,000 year ago. And in a slightly older unit in the cave they have found Neanderthal, Denisovan and possible Homo erectus bones, again together from a single layer. Within this context, and the Hobbit from Indonesia, our finds don't look so out of place after all. This is exciting because it shows the bones from Maludong, after 25 years of neglect, still have an incredible story to tell. There may have been a diversity of different kinds of human living until very recently in southwest China.'

But why only in tropical southwest China?

Darren Curnoe: 'Yunnan Province today has the greatest biodiversity of plants and animals in the whole of China. It is one of 20 floristic endemic centres as a result of its complex landscape of high mountains, deep valleys, rift lakes and large rivers. The region around Maludong is also on the northern edge of tropical Southeast Asia and many species found there today are very ancient indeed.'

Peter Klevius: No, the main reason is of course that it tropically connects to the "cradle of evolution" in the SE Asian volatile tropical archipelago.

Darren Curnoe: 'The Maludong femur might represent a relic, tropically adapted, archaic population that survived relatively late in this biogeographically complex, highly diverse and largely isolated region.'

The thigh bone resembles those found in older species of early human like Homo habilis and early Homo erectus.


3 Gibbon apes are the closest to where the human gait evolved from. The oldest gibbon fossil is 13 Mya and found in Asia. Most extant gibbons live in SE Asia and possess a variety that stands in sharp contrast to apes in Africa of which there are only really two types, i.e. gorillas and chimps.

4 SE Asian volatile tropical islands (shrinking and enlarging) and fluctuating mainland connections offered the perfect evolutionary laboratory for the human lineage as well as for many other mammals.

5 Although the s.c. Homo erectus appeared early in pleistocene, the estimated genomic time for the emergence of Homo sapiens is well in line with the onset of the later pleistocene climate oscillations.

6 The actual spread of Homo sapiens only makes sense as coming out of SE Asia - contrary to the strange proposal that Homo sapiens suddenly made it out of Africa and reached Australia in almost no time at all.

7 The first fully modern Homo sapiens were big skulled mongoloids, which explains the racial pattern the spread produced. The Liujiang skull is fully modern but possesses a tiny remnant of an occipital bun, which fact really underscores its old age despite its modern East Asian features. However, despite the fact that it can't be younger than 68,000 bp but most probably much older, doesn't hinder afropologists dismissing it because 'it looks too modern'.

8 Most fossils still called Homos do not necessarily belong to the Homo sapiens lineage at all. We simply don't know.

9 All s.c. Homo fossils in Africa are remnants of earlier out of SE Asia migrations. Some represent new species and some hybrid ones.

10 The out-of-Africa mantra has been so successful that many researchers automatically assume Africa as a starting point not only about Homos but also re. other primates and other mammals which clearly evolved outside Africa. Most of perceived African animals are immigrants from Eurasia. The concept of Afrotheria is more based on wishful guesswork than on facts.

Evolution of bipedalsim and a bigger brain

Bipedalism

Bipedalism didn't lead to a bigger brain. The Sahelanthropus type of bipedal apes had been aroung in Eurasia for at least 10 Myr before a larger brain setup came around.

It was actually the repeated insular shrinking of the brain during pleistocene that caused it to perform better on narrowing islands. Only those who managed to keep the same intelligence while their head shrunk were able to survive. And when the islands again expanded, then the more open savannah like landscape favoured better bipedalism - and a route to the mainland and/or neighboring island(s).

All of this were in SE Asia mixed with mainland migration, back migration and hybridization, which produced additional evolutionary tweeks outside the range seen on the mainland. In other words, firstly there were the evolutionary steps that could only be achieved in longterm isolation, and secondly there were additional changes in the island-mainland interactions connected to the former.

As a consequence, according to Peter Klevius evolution formula*, you need to distinguish between evolution, i.e. island isolation that takes a long time, and hybridization, which happens in no time at all. The former brought something truly new, whereas the latter only contributed minor alterations. Heterosexual reproduction is per se already a form of basic hybridization. And due to environmental and/or other factors a species may split into "subspecies" but when they do encounter each other, they can still breed and produce fertile offspring. However, such a "subspecies" is something very different from speciasion in longlasting complee isolation which can produce radically new changes. And when these new species eventually get in contact with old relatives they may or may not be able to hybridisize.

Peter Klevius science blog: Why were tall men from the south dumber ...
* This formula also seems to fit most land based quadropeds from Pangea to today because the evolutionary corridors were always changing. However, after some 200 Ma the cradle of evolution laboratory in the SE Asian archipelage has been the main producer of new evolutionary lineages, quite contrary to the mainstream out of Africa noise most peope are blinded by.


Paleoanthropology is a branch of paleontology and anthropology which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within Hominidea working from biological and cultural evidence.

Fake anti-science nomenclature introduced by afropologists

According to Peter Klevius, Hominoidea is the only acceptable classification of today's confused and PC biased nomenclature about human evolution. All sub-groups in use today are not only useless but also misleading. And why confine Homos together with chimps? Moreover, the made up Hominidae, which has no scientific foundation or even likelihood, is the fancy word afropologists came up with to get rid of the SE Asian apes like e.g. gibbons. Afropologists cherry pick among extinct (both fossils and predicted ones based on nomenclatura) and extant "species". Calling chimps "our closest living relatives" (and often even leaving out 'living') is extremely misleading and confusing for most people. Moreover, every paleoanthropologist

Hominidae or hominid, according to afropologists, has two subfamilies, Ponginae (orangutans) and Homininae (African apes, including the human lineage).
The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines") includes the extant genera Homo (humans) and Pan (chimpanzees and bonobos), but excludes the genus Gorilla (gorillas). Alternatively relating to, or being a member of a family (Hominidae) of erect, bipedal, primate mammals that includes recent humans together with extinct ancestral and related forms and in some recent classifications the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orangutan.

Bipedalism preceded other human like traits by at least 12 millions years.

Danuvius guggenmosi

Danuvius guggenmosi is an extinct species of apes that lived 11.6 Mya in Germany in an area that was a woodland with a seasonal climate. A male specimen was estimated to 31 kg, and two females 17 and 19 kg. It is the first Miocene ape with preserved long bones which can be used to reconstruct the limb anatomy and thus the locomotion. It had adaptations for both hanging in trees (suspensory behavior) and walking on two legs (bipedalism), while present-day great apes lack this abililty. Danuvius thus had a method of locomotion, called "extended limb clambering", which is close to extant gibbons. Therefore one may hypothize there has been extinct gibbons and/or last common ancestor with similar capabilities. Gibbons are expert on walking directly along tree branches as well as using arms for suspending themselves. Danuvius had a broad chest and is the first recorded Miocene ape to have had the diaphragm located in the lower chest cavity, as in Homo, indicating an extended lower back and a greater number of functional lumbar vertebrae, meaning the normal curvature of the human spine, moving the center of mass over the hips and legs, which also strongly implies habitual bipedal activity.

The robust finger and hypertrophied wrist and elbow bones indicate a strong grip and load bearing adaptations for the arms. The legs also show adaptations for load-bearing, especially at the hypertrophied knee joint. There was likely limited ankle loading, and the ankle would have had a hinge-like function, being most stable if positioned perpendicularly to the leg as opposed to in great apes. Moreover, Danuvius was likely able to achieve a strong grip with its big toes, unlike modern African great apes, which would have allowed it to grasp onto thinner trees. Adaptations for load bearing in both the arm and leg joints to this degree is unknown in any other primate.

The total anatomy of the limbs suggests Danuvius was capable of a seemingly unique manner of locomotion called "extended limb clambering", and likely walked along mildly inclined tree branches with its foot directly laid onto the branch, using its strong big toes for grasping. The strong knee joint would have provided balance while walking by counteracting torques, and the strong hands would have carried out a similar function during suspension or palm-walking. Extended limb clambering emphasizes knee extension and lordosis, as well as the suspensory mechanisms together constitute a precursor to obligate bipedalism seen in human ancestors.

Shivapithecus

A 10.8 Myr upper jawbone of Shivapithecus was found in Gujarat, India. Sivapithecus was about 1.5 m in body length and the shape of its wrist and general body proportions suggest that it spent a significant amount of its time on the ground, as well as in trees. It had large canine teeth, and heavy molars, suggesting a diet of relatively tough food, such as seeds and savannah grasses.

Kapi ramnagarensis

Kapi ramnagarensis is an extinct genus of gibbons that lived about 13.8-12.5 Mya in India. Extant gibbons walk successfully on a flexible foot on the ground and in the trees. Early humans could have walked successfully on a 'flexible' flat foot, similar to modern day gibbons. The arched 'rigid' foot of modern humans – thought to have appeared approximately 1.8 million years ago – is best adapted for upright walking, but early humans once had 'flexible' feet and could have walked on the ground earlier.

Rudapithecus

Rudapithecus is an ape which inhabited northern Hungary 10 Mya, and which fossilized pelvis shows it didn’t knuckle-walk like chimps or gorillas. It moved among branches holding its body upright, and unlike modern great apes, it had a flexible lumbar, which gave it the ability to stand upright like humans and walk efficiently on two legs. Rudapithecus looked more like humans, whose long, flexible lower backs make it easy to stand upright. Carol Ward: “If that's what our ancestors were like, then that transition to walking on two feet wasn't really that big a deal. We just specialized at doing it. We didn't have to have a fundamental change in how we moved. Everybody has seen the drawing of the knuckle-walker that is slowly standing upright. That's what we always thought happened because all we had to look at was modern animals. But now, looking at the fossil record, we realize we have the wrong picture of what the ancestral animals would have been like. And this is a really big piece of the puzzle.“

Trachilos footprints

The 6 Myr Trachilos footprints from Crete show clearly bipedal-like characteristics. However, when Gierliński and his team tried to publish the study, they received harsh criticism due to the findings going against the theory of Homos and other bipedals evolving in Africa.

Even though a bin may contain a lot of information - it's not its origin!

Instead of only keeping digging in the African bin, Peter Klevius suggests connecting the real Homo dots, wherever they pop up in the fossil record, and then connect them not to Africa, but to a much more likely place of origin in SE Asian tropical and volatile archipelago.

And in fact, we already have enough Homo fossils and artifacts to that aim - only problem they're all dismissed because they don't follow the out-of-Africa catechism.

Also, you need to understand that Homo erectus has nothing to do with Homo sapiens - just look at the skull and browridge, and recall Chris Stringer's chin!

Here are some fossils in SE Asia and China which do the trick - and they are all within the timeline of modern humans, yet they all exhibit old traits that fit
a SE Asian evolutionary patter:

1. Homo floresiensis shows that processes unknown to Africa were rooted on the "wrong side" of the Wallacea line. This means that ape to Homo transition must have happened all over the SE Asian archipelago. Afropologists have tried to "explain" it as insular drarfing of Homo erectus which somehow (sic) rafted to Flores 1-2 Mya. This is however absolutely nonsensical when taking into account the skeletal features of Homo floresiensis. Peter Klevius doubts there's a single afropologist who'd dare to risk their reputation by publicly stating that Homo floresiensis peculiar limbs etc. skeletal characteristics could be convincingly seen as coming from Homo erectus - aspecially considering the total lack of concensus about how to evem define the latter.

2. Homo luzonensis, on the other hand, had mainland access, and probably belonged to a branch that also included Homo sapiens.

3 And the perhaps most important one (because it showed up on mainland) hasn't even been rewarded a name by the "scientific community" even though it's atreasurethrow of information with almost complete cranial and post-cranial data.

At the time of cooling, mainland routes appeared from the receding sea and became grassy savannah-like "training corridors" for stuttering tree-climbing bipeds - and inroads for earler bipeds who then sooner or later got stuck at the next warming period.

We evolved from climbing apes in SE Asia and then learnt to walk and run on now drowned streches of savannah, as bipedal apes had already done for millions of years.



This fake graph is either made out of ignorance or deliberately made to confuse ignorant viewers. LGM ended around 20,000 bp. However, here the outdated concept of Holocene - which started around 11,ooo bp - is used although it has nothing to do with our interglacial because Younger Dryas - probably caused by massive volcanism - was just a temporary interruption in the warming up.

Do note how the increase in fluctuations of later Pleistocene coincide with the emergence of Homo sapiens. 
 

Late pliocene and the whole of pleistocene offered a variable cooling trend that accelerated in the latter part of pleistocene.

Peter Klevius predicts you'll never see fossils like H. floresiensis in Africa!


Multiple dwarfing events made our brain setup possible. What took some time was to transfer this arboreal brain on top of true bipedalism.

During Pleistocene, sea level oscillations became much more frequent, and during its last 600 Kyr we got the pattern of interglacials we still live in.

Dmanisi people would have easily outperformed Homo floresiensis when it comes to walking/running. However, when it comes to truly human characteristics of the brain the latter showed the way.

If we put aside fancy and childish "rafting theories"* then Homo floresiensis on the "wrong side" of the Wallace line, represents a truly independent line of Homo evolution.

* The most ridiculous part of OOA is how difficult it is to explain why omnivorous bipedals with the best brain ever on the planet, had such enourmous problem stepping out of Africa through a 200 km wide landbridge, even including different internal biospheres as if two different shorelines wouldn't be enough for substantiation. Moreover, no one disputes that humans have always followed shorelines with success.

All forms of apes and Homos ultimately came from SE Asia - and ended up as "puzzling" fossils in Africa, and lived side by side with other species - to the delight of religious creationists Africa therefore lacks transitional forms.


 

This is a 500,000 bp "hashtag" found in SE Asia without anyone paying any particular attention. However, when a similar but only 70,000 bp "hashtag" was found in Africa it was celebrated as evidence of the "African cradle of evolution".

During the time that H. heidelbergensis allegedly lived, closely related Homo populations periodically split up, reorganized and bred with outsiders, without necessarily operating as distinct biological species. Mating among different H. sapiens groups started some 500 Kya eventually producing modern humans as we see today.

Humans have a high and rounded brain case, with a small brow, a chin on the lower jaw and a slimmer bone structure, says Stringer. Neanderthals, by comparison, have a longer, lower skull, with a larger nose, brow and no chin.

"Humans have a clearly distinct skeletal shape from Neanderthals," says Stringer. "These differences suggest that there was a separate evolution for hundreds of thousands of years."

On the other hand, older modern human remains have a bigger brow, bulkier teeth and more robust skeletons. And the closer in age the remains are to the mystery ancestor, the difference in features is less pronounced.

After the two species evolved from a common ancestor, they became unmistakably separate in both appearance and DNA. But at the same time, before Neanderthals went extinct 40,000 years ago, they did many of the same things as humans. They hunted the same large game, had burial rituals, used similar tools and even interbred.


Out of Eurasia as bipedal apes and out of Siberia as global "Mongoloids ...

Homo floresiensis brain evolution perfectly fits the timescale of Homo sapiens.

Some reflections about extant gibbon apes

Siamang gibbon can be up to 150 cm, and the face is mostly hairless, except for a thin mustache. It inhabits the forest remnants of Sumatra Island and the Malay Peninsula, and is widely distributed from lowland forest to mountain forest—even rainforest—and can be found at altitudes up to 3800 m. It lives in groups of only four individuals on average, consisting of a monogamous mating pair and offspring, and sometimes also a subadult who usually leaves after attaining the age of 6–8 years.

The siamang rests for more than half of its waking period, followed by feeding, moving, foraging, and social activities, like grooming others or to play. Grooming is one of the most important social interactions among family members. Grooming takes place between adults earlier in the day; the adults groom the juveniles later in the day. Adult males are the most involved in grooming. Siamangs are a very social species of primates and exhibit a variety of tactile and visual gestures, along with actions and facial expressions to communicate and increase social bonds within their family group.

Grooming frequency between males and females has been found to correlate to copulation frequency, as well as bouts of aggression. Pairs copulate over four to five months at intervals of two to three years. The peak of their reproductive activity is when fruit is most abundant. Dorsoventral copulation is the most common type in siamangs, where the female is squatting and the male hangs by his arms and grips the female with his legs

Mated pairs produce loud, well-patterned calling bouts, which are referred to as duetting. These calls advertise the presence and status of a mated pair. Newly formed pairs spend more time singing than an established pair. Advertising the presence of a strong bond is advantageous in territorial defense. Siamang duetting differs from other species because it has a particularly complex vocal structure. Four distinct classes of vocalizations have been documented: booms, barks, ululating screams, and bitonal screams. Females typically produce long barks and males generally produce bitonal screams, but both sexes have been known to produce all four classes of vocalizations.


How the northern* Homo sapiens "mongolized" and "intellectualized" Homo sapiens globally

Peter Klevius science blog: 2019

Although Homo sapiens with a modern* brain setup evolved in island SE Asia, its volume was extremely small (compare Homo floresiensis). However, after mainland connection it moved all over the place and ended up in the cold but fat and protein rich north where it mixed with big skulled and cold adapted "mongoloid" relatives. The combination of the new brain setup and huge skulls where to fill it, was the reason behind the intellectual "explosion" Svante Pääbo and Peter Klevius have seen (although Pääbo in 2022 seems to cowardly now hiding behind the "rachet effect"*) as evident, yet the rest seem to dodge. However, we do know that a 55,000 bp skull found in Mideast was modern but pygmy size. We also know that the oldest modern "Africans" were small skulled s.c. negroid pygmies and mongoloid Khoisan people. So the pattern seems to be that "recent out of Asia" Homo sapiens had already occupied much land before the big skulled (i.e. near average of today's humans) from the north flooded the world. The consequence of the following mix is the phenotypical race pattern we see in modern times. The fact that the oldest modern genes in Africa belong to a mongoloid, i.e. cold adapted phenotype, may, in accordance with Peter Klevius theory, easily be explained as negritos being mongolized without much size increase, and some of them (the smarthest small brained) ending up in Africa where there alredy were African "negritos" i.e. s.c. pygmies. And the reason Khoisan harbour older genes is simply because they got the archaic genes of the people who carried the new brain setup, which fact also explains why Khoisan people managed to survive for quite some time in big parts of Africa while the pygmies, which still lacked the updated brain were more restricted to the tropics. The African negroid phenotype is a recent phenomenon - on pair with white skinned Caucasians - and started with modern Eurasians moving in from the north. And later on when Eurasian cattle and farming people in a larger scale moved down via Mideast around Yamnaya time, they also mixed with pygmies and Khoisan, and perhaps some archaics, hence creating the stock of the s.c. Bantu expansion which constitutes the most common phenotype variety, i.e. some sort of now "average African" or "black" African.

* The Primate brain evolved in steps in the volatile SE Asian archepilago. So we are just the last step. However, if we shouldn't have spread so successfully, an even better brain setup would have emerge during the next iceage. And we can't be sure whether the last glacial maximum also contributed to a better brain. Did the Deer Cave people with their small bodies but some 1350 cm2 brain volume give us an additional intelligence kick?

Do note that Peter Klevius grey "bastard belt" met and mixed with pygmy and khoisan people quite recently (the s.c. Bantu expansion), hence shaping the racial and genomic pattern in Africa.


Btw, Peter Klevius uses to call himself belonging to the racial "bastard belt" that is often called "Caucasian" just as the African "bastard belt" is called "negroid". Luckily, Peter Klevius' theory doesn't give his own "bastardness" any importance. The facts instead point to pygmy like SE Asians and mongoloized (cold adapted) Eurasians. However, if Peter Klevius' theory had pointed to his own "race", then he wouldn't only have been neglected but also hated as a "white supremacist racist", right.

Peter Klevius warning to young students interested in anthropology and evolution. Keep away from afropologists, or you inevitably end up embarrassing yourself in the "out-of-Africa" charlatanism!

Peter Klevius wrote 1992 (based on his general evolution theory published 1981):

Peter Klevius on Origin of Mosques - and Sex Trapped Princesses
In Resursbegär* (Demand for Resources) Peter Klevius (1992:28, ISBN 9173288411) wrote under the chapter Human Evolution:

* Peter Klevius most advanced research and scientific investigations have all happened outside academia and/or paid work - meaning Peter Klevius was excuded from internal information. In other words, Peter Klevius has since his teens gathered info from alternative sources such as books and magazines from libraries etc.. This might deceive someone to believe that the quality of Peter Klevius work then must have suffered. However, quite the contrary. Every published paper plus correspondence since 1979 is there to be seen by anyone. 1990-1992 while the book was written (and checked and approved by Wittgenstein's successor at Cambridge, G. H. von Wright, Peter Klevius not only subscribed to the expensive Nature magazine, but also heavily utilized other scienticfic magazines he could read for free in specialized magazine shops and libraries - i.e. the "free web" before internet. 1992 Peter Klevius father-in-law said: 'Ok, you're proud of the book now but after 20 years you gonna laugh at what you wrote.' And Peter Klevius almost believed him. However, now 30 years later the text seems more useful than ever.

'Already during the Paleocene 60 million. years ago, some primates, among them the still-living tarsier, had evolved. From relatives of these, it is believed that the anthropoids who lived in Africa and southeast Asia 25-38 million years ago, originated. These would eventually give rise to humans as well as apes. The genus Homo presents itself for the first time more than 2 million years ago as Homo habilis (the handy one) who could, among other things, build huts and use fire. The brain size of 700-800 cm3, begins to distinguish her more markedly from the apes and the first signs of the so-called. Broca's speech center can be discerned.

Pleistocenum, i.e. the ice age interrupted by interglacials, ranged from about 2 million years ago until the Holocene which includes the current interglacial that began about 10,000 years ago at the time of the first plant and animal domestication. The previous interglacial occurred some 120,000 years ago and there has been speculation as to why animal and plant domestication didn't take off already back then.

In northern China, an almost complete skeleton was found in 1984 who died about 280,000 years ago. The find was remarkable in that its large cranium capacity, 1,400 cm3 was not expected to occur among Homo erectus that lived during the Middle Pleistocene and that the cranium is large even if classified as Homo sapiens. Anatomically completely modern human has an average brain volume of about 1,400 cm3 and is estimated to have appeared between 50-100,000 years ago and therefore we can state that human's large brain volume with a reassuring margin preceded the first civilizations and that she for perhaps 2 million years would have been capable of building huts and fireplaces as well as using language.

It is against this background that we should consider the cultural change that occurred as recently as 6,000-10,000 years ago and which today at an accelerating pace is transforming our living space and ourselves. This means that modern human, biologically exactly like ourselves and with the same brain volume, has for most of its existence lived in more or less static social systems born out of its own evolution and interrupted only by continuously or sporadically occurring non-URB-related ecological adjustments. A world where expanded demands for resources and the building of spacecraft previously could not take root. A world where most things had their given place through the weight and expediency of tradition. A world where creativity and invention probably rarely occurred.

'Civilization' means 'ordered society' but rests on the dynamics of expanded demands for resources, thereby producing creativity and investment that constitute anomalies against this order (P. Klevius 1992).

There are several delicate cultural-anthropological prejudices which have got a strong grip on the public. One is the view about human aggression as an irresistable negative biological force which has to be released. To argue this while simultaneously proposing channelled aggressivity for the purpose of mitigating its effect, in fact, means that one culturally creates and stimulates patterns of negative behavior. Same species violence is, like expanded demand for resources, a learned behavior. The organized form of violence, i.e. war, seems not to be older than expanded demands for resources. They are likely intimately connected.

So called civilized societies can be described as dynamic, hence contrasting against the more static appearance of the economic setting (lack of investment) of e.g. hunter-gatherers.

A re-classification of human societies departng from C. Levi-Strauss idea about "warm" and "cold" societies (Klevius 1992):

A  Without 'extended demands for resources' (EDFR).
B  Affected by EDFR but still retaining a simplistic, "primitive" way of life.
C  Civilized with EDFR

These categories are, of course, only conceptual. Applied to a conventional classification the following pattern appears:

1  The primitive stage when all were hunter/gatherers (A, according to EDFR classification).
2  Nomads (A, B, C).
3  Farmers (B, C).
4  Civilized (C).

As a consequence EDFR is here used as a concept tied to civilization (and its preliminary stages) The above also suggests a critique against our conventional conception of a simplistic connection between intelligence and performance as exemplified by C. Popper's naive scenario of a World 1-3 transition of human cultural development (P. Klevius 1992).

(Implications of this view can be seen in Peter Klevius theory of mind EMAH, The Even More Astonishing Hypothesis, which deals with the mind/body problem and the closing gap between not only humans and other living things but also humans and machines - and the world as a whole).
 

Here's the last part of the chapter Khoi, San and Bantu (in Demand for Resources, Klevius 1992):

The concept of San includes the three groups ! King! Xu and G!wi, all of whom have their own closely related but independent languages. Of these groups, it is G!wi that can be assumed to be closest to the classical collector/hunter society, although really no groups today are found in the cultural patterns that still existed in the 50-60s. An appreciation of the traditional features of the cultural pattern of San (conventional group 1, URB group A) includes the absence of domestication, loose cohesion, unfixed, non-hierarchical decision-making order, and virtually non-existent material status (exceptions include, for example, hunting weapons and prey before the inevitable distribution).

Patricia Draper in the 1960s "The Harvard !Kung Bushmen Study Project" compared different sex roles between classic hunter-gatherers and !Kung societies connected to the surrounding Bantu societies. She found that "that !Kung society may be the least sexist of any we have experienced" and that this is evident in "women's subsistence contribution and the control women retain over the food they have gathered, the lack of rigidity in sex-typing of many adult activities including domestic chores and aspects of child socialization; the cultural sanction against physical expression of aggression; the smaller group size; and the nature of the settlement pattern." She furthemore notes that "authoritarian behavior is avoided by adults of both sexes." These characteristics were all hampered in the sedentary groups.

A pioneer in demonstrating how little work San gathers-hunters put into food sourcing and housing was Richard Lee, who in 1963 studied the among anthropologists now well-known Dobe Base Camp 12. He lived with them, methodically noting everything he saw, measuring and weighing both food and people, taking time on everything they did and the result of his, and later also the work of others can be summed up in the words of Marshal Sahlin: "1f the affluent society is one where all the people's material wants are easily satisfied this is the first affluent society." He continues: "The human condi?tion must keep man the prisoner at hard labor of a perpetual disparity between his unlimited wants and his insufficient means... " and "there is (instead) a road to affluence, departing from premises... that human wants are few, and technical means unchanging but on the whole adequate."

In the mid-1970s, Diane Gelburd, among others, found that the bushmen's lives in Dobe had changed character since Richard Lee's field studies. The huts were built of clay instead of grass and stood further apart. Some got doors as they filled with personal belongings. Fences were built for the animals that they have now acquired. The same was true of the bone remains, which previously consisted only of remains from wild animals, but in 1976 to 80 consisted of bone remains from domesticated animals.

At the same time, changes took place in internal social relations. The distribution of assets decreased and the forms of e.g. marriage were complicated due to new, previously unknown problems related to property issues.

"What explains the shattering of this society"? asks John Yellen from The National Science Foundation anthropology program. He continues: "It hasn't been a direct force, a war, the ravages of disease..." and answers: "1t is the internal conflicts, the tensions, the inconsistencies, the impossibility of reconciling such different views of the world."

The farming and cattle-herding Bantu peoples invaded the traditional lands of the Khoisan peoples which also created the cattle-herding Khoi. However, the Khoi and San have lived for several thousands of years side by side without the gathering-hunting San becoming cattle keepers.

So there's something more needed to crack the spine of a typical San society. Is it about a critical point for livelihood/population size? Is there a lower limit to the number of individuals in a functioning hunter-gatherer culture? At what stage exactly is the social immune system versus expanded demands for resource broken down? Whether there is a critical point or whether it is a question of a slowly increasing tension that gradually causes one stronghold after another to give in, we see here the emergence of the rift between cultural forms where the expanding demands for resources has taken root with varying success (P. Klevius 1992).'

Surely, there's no way back. Creativity and innovations, i.e. technology, will determine our "civilized" future.

 


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